How to Become a Wildland Firefighter

Unlock the path to becoming a wildland firefighter. Learn about training, skills, and challenges with guidance from the Western Fire Chiefs Association.

Published:June 18, 2024
June 18, 2024

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    Unlock the path to becoming a wildland firefighter. Learn about training, skills, and challenges with guidance from the Western Fire Chiefs Association.

    Wildland firefighters are crucial responders to the increasing frequency and intensity of wildfires. While maintaining rigorous fitness standards, they respond to fires, manage hazardous conditions, and predict fire behavior through data analysis. The demanding yet vital role of wildland firefighters requires a commitment to physical readiness, rigorous training, and ongoing dedication to protecting lives and landscapes from the threat of wildfires.

    Understanding the Role of Wildland Firefighters

    The frequency and intensity of wildland fires have significantly increased the demand for wildland firefighters. Climate change has led to hotter, drier conditions, resulting in longer fire seasons and more severe fires. Urban expansion into wildland areas has also increased the risk to human lives and property, necessitating a larger and more prepared firefighting workforce.

    Wildland firefighters must maintain high fitness standards due to the physically demanding nature of their outdoor work. Their role often demands strenuous physical exertion under challenging conditions, including smoke, high temperatures, and steep terrain. These firefighters are responsible for a variety of critical tasks beyond responding to wildland fires. They perform daily and weekly maintenance of fire division buildings, grounds, and equipment. They also hold and attend regular training sessions, as they are essential for maintaining their wildland firefighting skills and staying current with new developments in fire service techniques.1 Additionally, firefighters drive fire apparatus to incident scenes, operate two-way radios, and inspect and clean their equipment.

    Another critical area that wildland firefighters cover is the analysis of fire weather and topographical data to predict fire behavior. They meticulously record and document essential information related to emergency incidents and collaborate professionally with other agencies.

    What Are the Basic Requirements of Becoming a Wildland Firefighter?

    To become a wildland firefighter, candidates must meet several specific criteria. These basic requirements ensure that candidates are well-prepared for the physically and mentally challenging nature of wildland firefighting. These requirements are generally consistent across different agencies, with some variations.

    • U.S. citizenship
    • Age 18 or older at the date of hire
    • High school diploma or GED
    • Relatively clean criminal record** (DUIs and felonies won’t immediately disqualify you, but each crew has different standards)
    • Valid driver’s license
    • Passing a background check
    • Some agencies such as the National Park Service (NPS) and the Bureau of Land Management require you to pass a drug test
    • Passing the Arduous Work Capacity Test2
    basic requirements for wildfire firefighters

    What Are the Physical Requirements?

    One of the key fitness tests is the Arduous Work Capacity Test, which evaluates the physical readiness of candidates. To pass this test, individuals must hike for 3 miles while carrying heavy equipment within a strict time limit of under 45 minutes. This assessment ensures that firefighters have the endurance and strength needed to perform effectively in the field.3

    In addition to the Arduous Work Capacity Test, some individual agencies may impose further physical fitness tests to ensure that firefighters can meet the intense demands of the role. These additional tests may vary depending on the specific requirements of each agency but are designed to assess candidates’ overall physical health and readiness for wildland firefighting duties.

    The Application Process

    The application process for wildland firefighting typically begins in the off-season, with positions being advertised between October and December. Hiring typically occurs as the fire season approaches, between January and March. Individuals interested in pursuing a career as a wildland firefighter should consider applying by September or October, as many announcements close in January.4

    The application process may include a written test to assess knowledge and skills relevant to wildland firefighting. If selected for employment, candidates may undergo fire academy training to further develop their skills and prepare them for the demands of the job.

    Career Advancement

    Career advancement in wildland firefighting often involves pursuing additional training and education to acquire specialized skills and knowledge. While a college degree is not typically required for entry-level positions, firefighters aspiring to leadership roles or seeking advancement opportunities may benefit from obtaining a bachelor’s or even a graduate degree in fire science or related fields. Numerous degree programs are available, covering advanced techniques in fire management, fuels, public affairs, rangeland ecology, and more. Continuing education and training are essential for wildland firefighters to stay current with the latest developments and techniques in the field.5

    Wildland Firefighting Resources

    While specific apprenticeship programs for wildland firefighting may vary by location and agency, here are some general resources where individuals can learn more about becoming a wildland firefighter and potentially find apprenticeship opportunities:


    1. Unified Fire Authority, “Wildland Firefighter Job Duties.” Accessed June 5, 2024.
    2. Wildland Fire 101, “Minimum Requirements.” Accessed June 6, 2024.
    3. Indeed, “How to Become a Wildland Firefighter.” Accessed June 6, 2024.
    4. NWCG, “How to Become a Wildland Firefighter.” Accessed June 6, 2024.
    5. Fire Science, “How to Become a Wildland Firefighter.” Accessed June 6, 2024.

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    How to Become a Wildland Firefighter

    Unlock the path to becoming a wildland firefighter. Learn about training, skills, and challenges with guidance from the Western Fire Chiefs Association.

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